Friday, November 2, 2018

Cat Stomatitis: A Cure! No. 32




www.SilverSandsVeterinary.com
P 1-800-838-3368
E-Mail: DonDeForge100@gmail.com
Centers for Oral Care
The New York and New England Animal Dental Health Services
Donald H DeForge, VMD
Fellow of the Academy of Veterinary Dentistry
President of the Society for Veterinary Medical Ethics
No. 32




Image result for picture of cat in pain





CAT STOMATITIS!

THERE IS A CURE!


Attention: Doctors,Veterinary Nurses, and Stomatitis Cat advocates.

Today’s Topic in Animal Dentistry outlines my oral surgery using GBR to cure cats from stomatitis.  It is the only surgery to date that can bring complete resolution without remission.


Questions can be directed to DonDeForge100@gmail.com or you can call me at 1-800-838-3368.


 Introduction:  Topic In Animal Dentistry #1

The classic treatment of feline Stomatitis with whole mouth extraction or extraction of the teeth distal to the canine teeth has proven to be non-productive in half of the patients treated.

Any where between 50-65% of these felines have only short term improvement with a return of the oral inflammatory condition in 6 to 18 months.  On the other hand, the alternative surgery, herein described, utilizing Guided Bone Regeneration and radiosurgery to create full thickness mucoperiosteal flaps…… i.e. osseous surgery combined with bone augmentation has proven to be completely successful. 
 
Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR) 
Refers to procedures that attempt to regenerate lost periodontal structures, such as bone, periodontal ligament and the connective tissue attachment that support our teeth. This is accomplished using biocompatible membranes, often in combination with bone grafts or tissue stimulating proteins. 

Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) 
Refers to procedures that attempt to regenerate bone. This is accomplished using bone grafts and biocompatible membranes that keep out tissue and allow the bone to grow. 

In the Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Vol 14, No. 4-Dec 1997-Evaluation of Bioglass®/PerioGlas™ [Consil®] Synthetic Bone Graft Particulate in the Dog and Cat-DH DeForge, VMD -GBR is described. 
Bioglass® Synthetic Bone Graft Particulate [PerioGlas™/Consil™] was utilized to treat osseous periodontal defects, and in post-extraction sites to maintain the vertical height and width of the alveolar ridge.  In the osseous periodontal defect treatment group, clinical probing depths deceased significantly, and there was an apparent gain in attachment level.  This synthetic bone graft particulate improves the rate of osseous growth while being resorbed and replaced with bone during the healing process.

This original work led to the utilization of Consil®/Bioglass®, synthetic bone graft particulate, in a feline stomatitis surgery technique I developed.
 When implanted in stomatitis felines, a material surface reaction results in the formation of a calcium phosphate layer that is similar in composition and structure to the hydroxyapatite found in bone mineral.  This apatite layer provides the scaffolding onto which the patient’s new bone will grow allowing repair of the bone defects in feline oral stomatitis.  Diseased bone is removed and new bone is created to allow the patient to fully recover from the inflammation and pain caused by the pre-surgical oral pathology.
  
The hypothesis that the cats affected with stomatitis suffer from a bone disease rather than a dental disease has been confirmed  with this new surgical approach to the disease. The confirmation is the actualization of complete and permanent clinical improvement after GBR surgery in the edentulous patient [i.e. patients having had earlier whole mouth extraction surgery by other surgeons prior to referral to me]. In these felines, where the whole mouth extraction technique had failed, GBR Feline Stomatitis Surgery succeeds confirming the origin of the pathology as a bone-centered pathology.

Before patients can be treated utilizing radiosurgery combined with GBR, comprehensive pre-anesthetic screening must be completed. An incisional biopsy is performed to rule out other causes of oral pathology including oral cancer.  An Esophagostomy tube must be placed two weeks prior to GBR Stomatitis Surgery.

This surgery has been utilized by me for over a decade with ONLY POSITIVE results.  After all of this time, animal oral surgeons are now starting to acknowledge in their lecturing and manuscripts in journals that cat stomatitis may have a bony component. The wheel of surgical change moves slowly!

Contact Dr. DeForge about an in gratis exam!

Dr. Don DeForge
Fellow of the Academy of Veterinary Dentistry
President of the Society for Veterinary Medical Ethics
04October2018

Cat Stomatitis Part I No. 31




Animal Dentistry Solutions

No. 31 
A BLOG by DH DeForge, VMD
Fellow of the Academy of Veterinary Dentistry
1-800-838-3368

Finding the Cure: CAT STOMATITIS Part I



                          
Dr. DeForge Discusses Breakthrough Surgery for Treatment of Cat Stomatitis
Feline Stomatitis Radiowave Radiosurgery with Guided Bone Regeneration 
 Feline Stomatitis has been investigated by animal dentists for over twenty-five years. The etiology of this very painful pathology has yet to be determined. It has been, universally, recognized as one of the most painful oral conditions in the feline. The classic treatment for it in general practice has revolved around the usage of corticosteroids and antibiotics to suppress the immune response and treat soft tissue infection-inflammation.
The treatment by surgeons and animal dentists, for the last 20 years, after the completion of oral radiology and histopathology diagnostics, has been whole mouth extraction or extraction of all teeth distal to the canine teeth. Only half of the felines with this type of extraction surgery reach full recovery. Depending on the author, 4-5 patients out of each 10 felines treated with whole mouth extraction revert to some degree of the oral inflammatory state within 6-18 months post-surgery. As a treatment alternative, Feline Stomatitis Radiowave Radiosurgery-Guided Bone Regeneration has been developed by Dr. DeForge. It completely and permanently reverses the oral inflammation and pain evidenced in feline stomatitis patients.
Feline Stomatitis [FS], the most painful oral disease in the feline, has many faces and names. It is the most misunderstood, frustrating, and refractive of all feline oral conditions seen by the general practitioner as well as the oral specialist. As noted, it has been studied in detail by many researchers over the last twenty five years and its etiology is still unknown.
FS has many pseudonyms depending on the author who is referencing the pathology. It has been coined Lymphocytic Plasmacytic Stomatitis, Gingivostomatitis, Immune Mediated Feline Refractory Stomatitis, and Feline Generalized Oral Inflammatory Disease. The histopathology of oral biopsies in these cats evidences a predominance of plasma cells, lymphocytes, and neutrophils. A polyclonal gammopathy is commonly noted.
Pathology Noted: 
The name of the disease is not as significant as the pain that is caused by this disease. Feline Stomatitis [FS] produces a chronic non-responsive generalized oral pain affecting the gingiva, mucosa, palate, lingual and lingual-sublingual area; the glosso-pharyngeal arches; the commissures; and entire pharynx. Depending on the feline, all mentioned or site-specific pathology centers can be identified
.
Historically Non-Productive Treatments: 
The inflammation is progressive. There is no successful medical treatment for this disease. The inflammation can be hidden with glucocorticoids, immunosuppressants, herbs, gold salts, antibiotics, analgesics, vitamins, probiotics, local topical anesthetics, salicylate therapy, and multiple anti-inflammatory protocols. None are effective in the long term. Most often the pain relief is short lived while on these medicines and discomfort quickly returns.
Laser therapy is controversial in feline stomatitis and is not recommended by this author. Airway blockage caused by laser usage in the distal pharynx can lead to respiratory embarrassment or patient loss. In the J Vet Dent 24(4);240-249, 2007-J. Lewis, A Tsugawa, & A Reiter-[Use of C02 Laser as an Adjunctive Treatment for Caudal Stomatitis in a Cat] inclusion of a case report in which the laser was utilized and states: "It is difficult to determine what role the laser treatment played in resolution of the inflammation, especially after extraction of the remaining canine teeth performed at the fourth and last ablative laser treatment."
Sub-Groups of FS: 
Three sub-groups of FS have been identified by this author. Juvenile [4 months to 18 months]; Adult onset 18 months to 10 years; and Geriatric or Late Onset [10 to 20+ years].
A monomicrobial form of oral inflammatory disease, in very young felines, affecting the gingiva and moving into the alveolar mucosa at the mucogingival junction has been identified. It is seen in Bartonella positive felines.
Many young Bartonella positive felines, less than a year old, with a specific sub-type of feline oral inflammatory disease, most often, will respond to Azithromycin therapy as described by William D. Hardy, Jr, VMD at the National Veterinary Labs [info@natvetlab.com]. Dr. Hardy states, "veterinarians should consider Bartonella in their differential diagnosis as the etiologic agent for a subset of cats with oral inflammatory disease." Dr. Bill Hardy is to be recognized for his important clinical investigations into the study of Bartonella in cats and the multiple pathologies that they can cause. He is to be applauded for the information he has brought to feline medicine in this New Millennium through the Feline Bartonella test he has innovated. If a young patient, less than one year, that is Bartonella positive does not respond to Azithromycin therapy, it is most likely Juvenile FS and should be referred to an oral specialist/dentist/surgeon for diagnosis and treatment.
Bartonella and Stomatitis: 
It must be emphasized that this author does not feel that Bartonella is the etiologic agent for FS. Azithromycin does definitely reverse some, oral inflammatory disease patients under twelve months of age that are Bartonella positive. In older Bartonella positive felines that have FS, treatment with Azithromycin does not help reverse the pathology.
Signs of FS: 
The main characteristics of all age groups are advanced oral inflammation and severe pain. No veterinarian should rely on corticosteroids and antibiotics as the treatment protocol for these felines. It is non-productive, does not help the patient in the long-term, and most importantly can predispose the patient to systemic pathology. This author sees many cases of FS that have been treated for years with corticosteroid therapy with adrenal disease, liver disease, kidney disease, and transient diabetes. Others present with septic oral pathology that has been influenced by the immune system being suppressed by glucocorticoids.
Some patients with long-term FS are very aggressive, when presented, because of the long-term pain that they have experienced. The owners comment that not only mouth pain aggression is present but relate that they can be attacked by their cat at home at any moment. Many of these cats had been gentle and well socialized before developing FS. It is not uncommon to also see in advanced FS patients: dehydration, cachexia, and anorexia.
Diagnosis of FS: 
Diagnosis of FS is accomplished with biopsy and histopathology. The practitioner must never confuse FS with Squamous Cell Carcinoma [SCC] or any other oral neoplasia in the feline. Biopsy must be deep and representative of the pathology. Superficial biopsies are useless to the histopathologist. This author recommends both soft tissue and bone biopsy specimens be sent to an oral histopathologist for examination.
These areas are not easy to biopsy and significant bleeding can occur. It is recommended to perform all soft tissue biopsies with Radiowave Radiosurgery [RWRS]. An understanding of Indirect Radiowave Radiosurgery Coagulation [IRRC] is recommended. See on-line The Journal of Veterinary Radiowave Radiosurgery-www.RadiowaveRadiosurgery.com
Pre-Anesthetic Testing: 
Whether for biopsy or for surgical treatment, all FS felines should be scrutinized for other existing non-related medical problems.  This is done by an Internal Medicine Specialist. Feline Leukemia testing should be repeated if not performed within the last year in all age groups. A Feline Immunodeficiency Virus test-i.e. Western Blot at National Veterinary Labs is recommended.  The owner must be warned that recovery from stomatitis surgery is delayed in FIV+ Felines.
Feline Leukemia Elisa positive cats should be evaluated with a Fluorescent Antibody test by an Internal Medicine Specialist. Surgery is not recommended in Leukemia + felines. If there is a question of ANY complicating health issue, contact an Internal Medicine Specialist before proceeding.
A Feline Bartonella test is accomplished prior to surgery for all felines-Dr. DeForge recommends the Western Blot Bartonella Test at National Veterinary Labs. As stated earlier, it is this author's opinion, Bartonella disease is not the cause of FS and FS patients cannot be successfully treated with Azithromycin. It is recommended to test FS cats and treat the Bartonella positives, with Azithromycin. Because of the public health significance of a Feline Bartonella positive feline’s presence in the home, with oral oozing sores and ulcers in the mouth, treatment is encouraged.
Mixed Pathology and FS: 
Mixed pathology is found in the FS patient. Feline Eosinophilic Granuloma Complex, external and internal root resorption, root ankylosis, and bone changes can all be present. The soft tissue changes are the most extreme with ulcerated sites that bleed readily when being examined. In many FS patients, the attached gingiva, under general inhalation anesthesia, can be peeled back from the tooth and bone as easily as peeling a banana.
 Feline Stomatitis: A Disease of Bone-Not a Dental Disease
Dr. DeForge’s studies have confirmed that FS is not a disease of the dentition but is a disease of bone. A polymicrobial bone pathology is suspected. A grant for bone culture and tissue culture is being sought to confirm FS etiology.
Feline Stomatitis-Oral Radiology and Histopathology: Characteristic changes are noted in the bone, utilizing digital oral radiology, in all age groups of FS patients. The pathologist in FS soft tissue biopsies will describe an inflammatory infiltrate composed primarily of plasma cells, neutrophils, and lymphocytes. The fact that all patients respond to aggressive osseous surgery sheds new light on a bone origin of FS. If FS pathology was of a dental origin, ALL patients would fully respond to whole mouth exodontia. This is not the case. Only half of the FS patients respond fully to exodontia with a complete and permanent resolution of the inflammation.
 Feline Stomatitis Radiowave Radiosurgery [FSRWRS-GBR] with Guided Bone Regeneration is THE ANSWER to Feline Stomatitis
Feline Stomatitis Radiowave Radiosurgery coupled with Guided Bone Regeneration can successfully treat any feline with FS and reverse the pathology so that the patient has a pain free quality of life. FSRWRS-GBR is a surgery of bone. It utilizes oral digital radiology to identify areas of sclerosing osteomyelitis, condensing osteitis, sclerotic alveolar crestal bone loss, and hypertrophic bone reaction with resorption. Once the pathology is identified, Radiowave Radiosurgery [Ellman International-
www.ellman.com] is utilized, to incise all soft tissue and expose the pathology, identified earlier with digital radiology. Using the fully filtered rectified waveform, Radiowave Radiosurgery produces a blood-free atraumatic surgical field that allows visualization of the bone pathology to be treated.
The fully rectified filtered waveform is a pure continuous flow of high-frequency energy. The fully rectified filtered waveform produces the least amount of lateral heat and tissue shrinkage. The fully filtered waveform resembles the scalpel incision most and is the only waveform that allows cutting in close proximity to the bone, due to the minimal amount of lateral heat produced. [Sherman J, Waveform Types and Properties, Oral Radiosurgery-3 rd Edition, Chap. 2, p.9;Taylor and Francis-2005.] Osseous Surgery and Guided Tissue Regeneration are the important keys to the completion of Feline Stomatitis Radiowave Radiosurgery [FSRWRS]
There is an antibiotic protocol after surgery to eliminate the osteomyelitis that cannot be surgically treated because of proximity to vital anatomy. Pain control is paramount intra-operatory and post-operatory. The pain presence is not, primarily, from the surgery itself but is from the oral inflammation and ulcerations present pre-surgery. Contrary to past belief, this new surgery technique has shown that all abnormal soft tissue does not need to be removed at the time of surgery. The inflammation, in soft tissue, quickly resolves once the osseous surgery is completed.
Any Feline Stomatitis edentulous feline who has experienced complete exodontia by a qualified surgeon or animal dentist with return of the oral inflammatory disease can be successfully treated with Feline Stomatitis Radiowave Radiosurgery-GBR. This proves that FS is not a dental disease but a bone disease. What remains to be shown is the identity of the proposed polymicrobial system in the bone initiating the immune-related oral inflammation.
Pre-Testing Prior to Surgery
An Internal Medicine doctor must examine your cat and clear your cat for General Inhalation Anesthesia for Stomatitis Surgery. That same Internal Medicine doctor must place a feeding tube-i.e. Esophagostomy tube-  two weeks prior to Part One of the Stomatitis Surgery at the time of your pre-anesthesia testing.  Alternative pre-anesthesia testing can be performed by Dr. DeForge. If pre-anesthesia testing is performed by your LDVM, a Clearance for Anesthesia letter must be signed and provided by your LDVM to Dr. DeForge.  All chest x-rays must be reviewed by a radiologist.  All sonograms, if indicated, must be performed by a specialist.  All ECG’s must be computer interpreted or reviewed by a specialist prior to anesthesia.



The Surgery with bone grafting is completed in two parts each two weeks apart.  Dr. DeForge works on ½ of the mouth in each visit.  Each surgery is 2 hours long.
The patient is discharged the same day of the surgery.  There must be a caretaker that is able to follow the instructions on the usage of the E-Tube for feeding formula after surgery and giving medicines to the patient after surgery.  All medicines are given in the E-Tube until about one week after the second surgery.  The E-Tube flushing-maintenance is essential to prevent the tube becoming clogged.  Medicines and Histopathology Biopsy Lab fees are additional to the above estimate.
You must purchase an E-Collar and a vest harness for your cat prior to the surgery and bring it with you to our center the day of surgery. We zip-tie the E-Collar to the harness to protect the E-Tube and to stop the patient from traumatizing the surgery after it is completed.
You must have a large breed dog crate to keep the patient confined in while the surgery period is active.  After the E-Tube is removed.[i.e. two weeks after the second surgery the large breed dog crate is discontinued]   A cat with an E-Tube can dislodge the E-Tube even with an E-Collar in place if given free roam of the home.
A veterinarian must change the dressing covering the E-Tube weekly.  The E-Collar must be kept clean daily.  It is especially important to clean after eating-this will be explained on discharge.  All foods are blenderized.  No blenderized foods can be given for 72 hours after each surgery.  That is a time ONLY for Tube Feeding with Ensure Vanilla Formula to allow the mouth to heal.
There will be a complete set of discharge instruction post-surgery.  All medicines are compounded by RoadRunner Pharmacy into a triple tuna liquid.  These are first given by E-Tube.  When the E-Tube is removed they are able to be mixed in Fancy Feast Primavera or Florentine canned food varieties-tuna or salmon.  Schedule a pre-surgery consult with Dr. DeForge.  He will order the prescriptions for you at that time.  For this consult there must be a 12 hour food fast and a 6 hour water fast in case Dr. DeForge wants to give a mild sedative to examine the mouth.
After the first month post-surgery, antibiotics are pulsed two weeks out of each month for 6 months.  This is to reduce residual infection in the oral cavity.  After that time no medicines are needed.
Thank you for allowing me to help in the removal of Cat Stomatitis from the member of your family that you love.
In conclusion, Guided Bone Regeneration Stomatitis Surgery in the cat is not for everyone.  The care of an E-Tube must be meticulous.  Medicines are given for 90 days post surgery.  A large/giant breed dog crate must be established for confinement during this period.  It is a comfortable home and not an isolation unit for 90 days.  You must visit, hold, and show love to your pet during this important 3 month post-surgery period.  Cat GBR Stomatitis Surgery is not a surgery for outdoor cats.  It is not a surgery for cats with other medical problems that may have secondary and not primary cat stomatitis.  It is a journey.  A journey well worth the completion……. but a journey that is positive ONLY with a hope and belief in a positive outcome.  With attendance to all that is recommended, your cat will have a wonderful life.  Do not go into the surgery without realizing it requires effort and work on your part to be successful.  Dr. DeForge is the surgeon but the family and Dr. DeForge are the primary pet advocates.  Without listening, communicating, and working together success and pain relief will not occur.
DH DEFORGE, VMD-Fellow of the Academy of Veterinary Dentistry

Cat Stomatitis Part II No. 30


www.AnimalDentistrySolutions.com
No. 30 -- 
A BLOG by DH DeForge, VMD
Fellow of the Academy of Veterinary Dentistry
1-800-838-3368


Dr. DeForge Develops Breakthrough Surgery for Treatment of Cat Stomatitis Part II
Feline Stomatitis Radiowave Radiosurgery with GBR: PART II
The Treatment of Feline Stomatitis: A New Surgical Protocol Combining Radiosurgery with Guided Bone Regeneration [GBR] utilizing Consil®/Bioglass® Synthetic Resorbable Bone Graft Particulate.

Introduction:
The classic treatment of feline Stomatitis with whole mouth extraction or extraction of the teeth distal to the canine teeth has proven to be non-productive.
Anywhere between 50-65% of these felines have only short term improvement with a return of the oral inflammatory condition in 6 to18 months.  On the other hand, the alternative surgery, herein described, utilizing Radiowave Radiosurgery to create full thickness mucoperiosteal flaps, combined with osseous surgery, and bone augmentation have proven to be completely successful.
Dr. Robert Wiggs, identified by many as the “Father of Modern Veterinary Dentistry” writes in Veterinary Dentistry Principles and Practice: Lippincott-Raven-1997 about the importance of Guided Tissue Regeneration.
“As advances in veterinary dentistry occur, new techniques and materials and being utilized to offer treatment for teeth with advancing periodontal lesions that previously would have been extracted.  Periodontal disease progresses in a cyclic manner of alternating periods of active destruction and dormancy, rather than being linearly continuous.   Many forms of periodontitis exist, each progressing to cause attachment loss at variable rates.  The actual cause of attachment loss is generally considered to include interactions of bacteria, their by-products, and the various components of the host immune system in response.  Periodontal pockets on the palatal aspect of the maxillary cuspids are easily overlooked, yet they are not an uncommon finding in the dog and when encountered have a strong probability of eventual oronasal fistula development.  While tooth extraction with appropriate flap closure addresses the problem, preservation of the tooth structure and resolution of the defect using regenerative therapeutic means represent a possible positive alternative.”
Dr. Wiggs continues:
“Ultimately, regeneration of the supporting tissues to attain a more normal and healthy anatomic and physiologic state may help in maintaining disease control. Guided Tissue Regeneration [GTR] in veterinary dentistry principally deals with the regeneration of periodontal tissue lost due to disease or injury.  Tissue regeneration has been demonstrated with alveolar bone, cementum, and periodontal ligament in specific therapies, locations, and type of materials. Bulk osseous replacement packing materials generally come in small natural particulate, granular, or spherical shapes available in non-absorbable and absorbable substances.”
From Dentistry.com-the following definitions from human dentistry might help explain the terms GTR and GBR.
Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR)
Refers to procedures that attempt to regenerate lost periodontal structures, such as bone, periodontal ligament and the connective tissue attachment that support our teeth. This is accomplished using biocompatible membranes, often in combination with bone grafts or tissue stimulating proteins.
Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR)
Refers to procedures that attempt to regenerate bone prior to the placement of bridges or, more commonly, implants. This is accomplished using bone grafts and biocompatible membranes that keep out tissue and allow the bone to grow.
Also:
Bioactive glass materials such as PerioGlas (Biomaterials) or BioGran (Orthovita) are a form of glass particles upon which a layer of apatite forms, thus promoting bone formation. [ Wheeler DL, Stokes KE, Hoellrich RG, et al. Effect of bioactive glass particle size on osseous regeneration of cancellous defects. J Biomed Mater Res. 1998;41:527-533.]. 
In the Journal of Veterinary Dentistry, Vol 14, No. 4-Dec 1997-Evaluation of Bioglass®/PerioGlas™ [Consil®] Synthetic Bone Graft Particulate in the Dog and Cat-DH DeForge, VMD -GBR is described.  Bioglass® Synthetic Bone Graft Particulate [PerioGlas™/Consil™] was utilized to treat osseous periodontal defects, and in post-extraction sites to maintain the vertical height and width of the alveolar ridge.  The material is easy to use, inhibits epithelial down growth, and acts as a mechanical hemostatic agent.  Radiographic follow-up in 36 dogs and 5 cats demonstrated significant bone fill.  In the osseous periodontal defect treatment group, clinical probing depths deceased significantly, and there was an apparent gain in attachment level.  This synthetic bone graft particulate improves the rate of osseous growth while being resorbed and replaced with bone during the healing process.
This original work led to the utilization of Consil®/Bioglass®, synthetic bone graft particulate, in a feline stomatitis surgery technique developed by Dr. DH DeForge.  When implanted in stomatitis felines, a material surface reaction results in the formation of a calcium phosphate layer that is similar in composition and structure to the hydroxyapatite found in bone mineral.  This apatite layer provides the scaffolding onto which the patient’s new bone will grow allowing repair of the bone defects in feline oral stomatitis.  Diseased bone is removed and new bone is created to allow the patient to fully recover from the inflammation and pain caused by the pre-surgical oral pathology.
The hypothesis that the cats affected with stomatitis suffer from a bone disease rather than a dental disease has been confirmed by Dr. DeForge with this new surgical approach to the disease. The confirmation is the actualization of complete and permanent clinical improvement after Dr. DeForge’s GBR surgery in the edentulous patient [i.e. patients having had earlier whole mouth extraction surgery by other surgeons prior to referral to Dr. DeForge].   In these felines, where the whole mouth extraction technique had failed, GBR Feline Stomatitis Surgery succeeds confirming the origin of the pathology as a bone-centered pathology.
Before patients can be treated by Dr. DeForge with his surgery utilizing radiosurgery combined with GBR, a very comprehensive pre-anesthetic screening must be completed.  This screening includes clinical chemistry, serology, hematology, and special imaging to rule out other medical problems that might co-exist with stomatitis.  Feline Cardiomyopathy and Low Grade Lymphoma and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia [CLL] are problems that have been noted in felines referred to Dr. DeForge for his surgical treatment of stomatitis.
  
 Cats with HC are examined by a cardiologist and pre-treated prior to surgery with cardiologist approval for anesthesia.  The Lymphoma patients and CLL patients are not candidates that will be helped with stomatitis surgery.  Other patients present with Feline Immunodeficiency Virus infection.  These patients are confirmed as true FIV + patients by Western Blot testing at the National Veterinary Lab.  The FIV+ patient can be treated with stomatitis surgery with the client realizing that the recovery period will be lengthy.    
  
All cats undergoing this surgery are Feline Bartonella tested by the National Veterinary Laboratory.  Dr. William Hardy at the National Veterinary labs identifies a subset of Feline Bartonella positive felines with a stomatitis-like pathology, under a year of age, that respond very well to treatment with Azithromycin.
Feline Stomatitis cats over twelve months of age that are Feline Bartonella positive, as identified by Western Blot testing at Dr. Hardy’s laboratory, will not respond with Azithromycin.   They are still treated with Azithromycin prior to surgery because of the fact that Bartonella poses a zoonotic threat.  The older Feline Bartonella + positive feline with stomatitis will need GBR surgery to recover.  All patients that are presented for feline stomatitis surgery have biopsies to rule out oral cancer and confirm that they are truly oral stomatitis affected felines.
The following pictures are before and after pictures from two different patients who both had Dr. DeForge's Feline Stomatitis Radiowave Radiosurgery with GBR Parts I and II performed. Notice the significant decrease in inflammation and ulceration in the after photographs in comparison to the before photographs.
The photo gallery included in this report shows the improvement of patient’s after Dr. DeForge’s GBR surgery.  Questions about this surgery should be directed to Dr. DeForge at: DonDeForge100@gmail.com

Gingival Hyperplasia and Radiosurgery No.29

Donald H DeForge, VMD
Silvers Sands Veterinary
Milford Veterinary Hospital-Urgent and General Care
17 Seemans Lane-Milford, CT-06460
P 203-877-3221
F-203-877-8301
E-Mail-DonDeForge100@gmail.com
Centers for Oral Care
Tri-State Advanced Oral Medicine and Oral Surgery
Fellow of the Academy of Veterinary Dentistry
No. 29






Topics in Companion Animal Dentistry:
Gingival Hyperplasia
and Radiosurgery
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Historical Background:
Gingival Hyperplasia is a common findings in Boxers, Bulldogs, Pit Bulls, and Cocker Spaniels
along with other breeds. Its etiology is not known but a genetic link to certain breeds is
suspected.  There is a proliferative and abnormal growth of gingival tissue with pseudopocket
formation. These pockets lead to attachment loss with food, hair, and debris entrapment.
This condition should never be ignored because it will lead to advanced periodontal pathology
and oral pain.
Diagnosis:
Diagnosis is with Incisional biopsy.  Gingival hyperplasia can mimic epulis; benign invasive
oral tumors; and oral malignancies.  It is essential to biopsy to rule out oral cancer.


Medicine Induced Gingival Hyperplasia:
Certain families of medicines can cause gingival hyperplasia.  Diphenylhydantoin;
Cyclosporine; and Calcium Channel Blockers can induce gingival hyperplasia.  
Not all patients on these drugs develop gingival hyperplasia. If a patient does have gingival
hyperplasia treatment alternatives for the condition under care must be scrutinized.


Treatment Choices:
The goal of treatment is the surgical removal of proliferative tissue restoring normal gingival
contour.  Cold steel; laser; and radiosurgery [4.0 MHz] are the surgical cutting choices. It is
my opinion that only radiosurgery should be utilized for the following reasons:
Radiosurgery~~~High Frequency 4.0 MHz*
  • Permits hemorrhage control with a clear surgical field of vision
  • It prevents seeding of bacteria into the incision site
  • It permits planing of soft tissue
  • It eliminates scar tissue formation
  • It minimizes post-operative discomfort and re-treatments
  • It has a pressureless cut with a “paint-brush”-like stroke
*If your patient has a pacemaker or an Implantable Cardioverter Defibillator [ICD] your
veterinary cardiologist must be consulted prior to the use of radiosurgery.


The Procedure:
Incisional Biopsy can be done before or during the procedure if the owner does not wish two
anesthesia visits.  Pre-Anesthesia testing is completed prior to anesthesia.
Gas Inhalation anesthesia only
Pre and post treatment oral photography is advised
Full mouth oral radiology must be completed prior to removal of hyperplastic gingiva to isolate
other co-existent oral pathology. Client consultation is compulsory with Informed Consent
before treating other pathologies.
Under general inhalation anesthesia periodontal Ligament Blocks are initiated~~~
[not regional] using Articaine/Septocaine-total dosage is weight dependent
A fully rectified 4.0 MHz waveform using a Vari-Tip 118 electrode for surgical removal of the
hyperplastic tissue, is initiated, with an inverse bevel gingivectomy followed by a ginigvoplasty
A complete Piezoelectric ultrasonic root planing is completed after gingivoplasty
Tincture of myrrh and benzoin is the recommended postoperative dressing


Follow-Up Care:
A soft diet is recommended for 30 days
All hard chew materials are removed from consideration
Plaque control is essential to assist in post care recovery
Rechecks are monthly for 6 months
Regrowth of gingival tissue is minimal with excellent periodontal care of the patient
professionally along with homecare anti-plaque topicals.
Questions about this blog?
Contact Dr. DeForge at: DonDeForge100@gmail.com

Thursday, January 18, 2018

Complications in Oral and Periodontal Surgery-#DrDonDeForge 18Jan2018

Donald H. DeForge, VMD
#DrDonDeForge
Fellow of the Academy of Veterinary Dentistry
17 Seemans Lane
Milford, CT 06460
www.SilverSandsVeterinary.com
The New England and NY Animal Dental Health Services
P 203-877-3221
F 203-877-8301
E-Mail DonDeForge100@gmail.com
No.28

COMPLICATIONS IN ORAL SURGERY & 
PERIODONTAL SURGERY IN COMPANION ANIMALS

Image result for Picture of a high speed dental rear venting handpiece for oral surgery

The new Millennium has brought great advances to the oral care of companion animals.  Veterinary dentists are now preserving teeth routinely with root canal therapy.  Damaged dentition can be preserved with full jacket crowns or caps.

We are very close to tooth implants in animals becoming a reality.  These will be especially beneficial for working dogs.

Patients with advanced periodontal disease no longer have to suffer.  Through the usage of periodontal surgery; antibiotic implants; supportive periodontal therapy by an animal dentist; and excellent anti-plaque home care programs, pets can now have a quality and pain free life.  Teeth that formerly were extracted, in many instances, can now preserved.

Digital oral radiology has become the major diagnostic tool for the animal dentist and the general practitioner performing routine oral care.  Hand held dental x-ray generators and digital x-ray processing combined with teledentistry [oral x-ray interpretation] has made detailed oral diagnostics in reach of all veterinarians.  The patient benefits with precise treatment based on oral radiology diagnostics leading to a pain free quality of life.

Many general practices now have dental units with high speed and low speed dental handpieces to permit atraumatic care in the treatment of a plethora of oral conditions.

Courses have become available nationwide to train dental practitioners in the correct implementation of these dental drills.

With all technology, there are risk factors that must be understood to prevent inadvertent trauma to the patient.
One of these risks is associated with the high speed air turbine drill and the 3-way air/water syringe.

The high speed air turbine dental drill makes the removal of difficult dentition less complicated.  This is especially the case with root fusion to bone [ankylosis]; in retained root removal; and in mass removal [cysts or tumors attached to bone].

The complication of air embolism, to be described, is uncommon but can occur in people as well as animals.

Subcutaneous emphysema can occur with pressurized air from the dental hand-piece or the 3-way air syringe that is found on most dental tables manufactured for the human dentist, animal dentist, and general practitioner performing extractions. 

During oral surgery or periodontal surgery, the air from these handpieces can become entrapped in fascial planes and accumulate in tissues.  The sublingual spaces communicate with the retropharyngeal space which can continue to the mediastinum. Air can enter and spread with pathogenic microorganisms.  

Air embolism from a dental drill or 3 way air syringe- used with air-on or air-water on can be injected [with mandibular oral surgery] into the facial and/or pterygoid venous plexus which communicates with the superior vena cava and the right atrium and ventricle.  It is postulated that the air can pass on to the pulmonary circulation causing arrhythmias and potential cardiac arrest.

Facial emphysema has also been reported with orbital spread and retinal artery collapse.  This could lead to permanent blindness.  Reports have indicated that air spread down the neck can cause a mediastinal emphysema; tension pneumothorax, pneumoperitoneum, and even death.

As stated, human dentists, veterinary dentists, and veterinary practitioners daily use high speed air turbine drills and 3-way auto syringes in the air and air-water combination without complication or life-threatening outcomes.  

That is not a reason to ignore the potential for serious complications.  Never use the 3-way syringe in the air mode or air-water mode during any surgical procedure.  Use the high speed air turbine drill judiciously after surgical flap creation.  Never place the air driven handpiece deep into tissue planes blindly.

The other alternative in oral surgical extractions and periodontal surgery cases is avoiding the standard air driven handpiece that is used for restorative procedures which produces a stream of water and compressed air to the operative field.  Substitute a high speed air turbine driven surgical handpiece which vents air to the back of the handpiece.  These are called rear-venting handpieces.

Excellent surgical techniques and judicious use of handpieces is recommended in all procedures.  If you feel the case is beyond your expertise consult with an animal dentist.

Continue your education in all periodontal and oral surgery applications by taking laboratory courses on-site.